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LSBU Harvard Referencing: Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI?

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) were introduced in 2000.

 

A DOI is made up of numbers, letters and symbols. 

Some DOIs look like this 10.3352/jeehp.2013.10.3.  You can paste this numver straight into a search engine and it will give you the detalis (though not always the full text) of the source. 

Some DOIs are URLS that look like this  http://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2013.10.3 and they work in much the same way.

 

Because the DOI is unique to a source it can be added to a reference in place of the URL and accessed date. As DOIs are permanent identifiers, unlike URLs, you do not need to include date of access in the reference. 

When do I add it to my reference?

The DOI is optional for the references of sources found in the LSBU databases.  

If you find a source outside of the LSBU databases eg. on Google Scholar, you will need to add either a DOI or the web address and accessed date to the reference.

 

Example:

Serebryannikov, S. V. (2010) The Moscow power engineering institute (Technical University): from 1930 to 2010, Thermal Engineering, 57 (12), pp. 12-30. DOI: 10.1134/S0040601510120025.

OR

Example:

Connor, J. D., Sinclair, W. H., Leicht, A. S. and Doma, K. (2019) Analysis of cricket ball type and innings on state level cricket batter’s performance, Frontiers in Psychology, October, pp. 133-137. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02347/full [Accessed 21 January 2021].