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LSBU Harvard Referencing: Patents

Format of the reference

You will need:

  • Name of the inventor(s) or name of the organisation
  • Year of publication, or year the page was last updated
  • Title of the patent document
  • Country /region patent number
  • Web address
  • Date accessed



Inventor’s surname and initials or organisation. (Year of publication) Title of patent document. Country/region patent number. Available from: [Accessed day month year]


Philip Morris Inc. (1983) Optical perforating apparatus and system. US patent 4404452 A. Available from: [Accessed 19 February 2021].

In-text citation: (Philip Morris Inc., 1983)




LSBU Harvard Referencing Quick Guide